Journal of Critical and Intensive Care 2023 , Vol 14, Issue 3
Experimental Animal Models of Sepsis and Septic Shock
Esin OZCELEBI 1 ,Alper Bektas ISKIT 1
1Hacettepe University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Pharmacology, Ankara, Turkey DOI : 10.37678/dcybd.2023.3488 A typical inflammatory reaction to several infections leads to sepsis. It continues to provide a picture of a complicated heterogeneous disease that frequently results in the emergence of many organ dysfunctions and kills millions of individuals globally. Numerous attempts have been made to simulate sepsis because it is challenging to perform extensive studies on sepsis in humans. To explain the pathogenetic causes of the disease, its clinical and paraclinical aspects, as well as chances for its therapeutic management, the goal of this review is to provide the most popular experimental sepsis models ever created. This review is based on a thorough analysis of the literature. The types of laboratory animals, infections used, and ways in which they are introduced into the organism vary between the cited models. Models can be classified as "non-surgical" (with parenteral administration of endotoxins or pathogenic bacteria) or "surgical" (referring to preceding operative intervention intended to induce peritonitis, such as ligation and subsequent puncture of the cecum, insertion of a stent in the wall of the ascending colon, implantation of bacterial cultures, or pathogens included in the composition of different carriers). The pros and cons of the models under examination are taken into account, as well as how closely they resemble clinical sepsis in all of its manifestations, grading each step in the septic process. The reality is that none of the models that have been developed can accurately capture the intricate, polymorphic, and dynamic nature of sepsis. However, any of them can offer trustworthy details on specific steps in the septic process. Keywords : sepsis, septic shock, experimental, animal, lipopolysaccharide, cecal ligation and puncture